Buy Compazine Without Prescription
Buy compazine without prescription, This was a poster session presented at the annual NIMH Conference by Linda Andre and Juli Lawrence. Note: graphics are clickable for larger views.
Beyond “anecdotal” evidence:
The contribution of ECT survivors to research on the permanent effects of ECT on memory, memory ability and cognition
Statement of the Problem:
Evidence from ECT survivors has been dismissed as "anecdotal."
Such evidence exists in many forums: in the popular press, in literature, in public testimony before legislatures, drug compazine online purchase, on the internet, in the archives of the Food and Drug Administration---but almost never in the published medical literature. Thus, this evidence has been almost entirely ignored by paid professional ECT researchers. Find compazine no prescription required, The discounting of the writings and testimony of ECT survivors has led to a "knowledge gap" in ECT research. The enormous body of knowledge of those with direct knowledge of the nature and extent of ECT's permanent effects has been discounted by professional researchers, buy compazine without prescription. Professionals have attempted to study these effects without input from those directly affected. They have not been successful.
In an attempt to close this knowledge gap, survivor researchers have designed and instrumented our own research projects to investigate the permanent effects of ECT on memory, memory ability, compazine for order, and cognition.
There is a great disparity between the results obtained by professionals and those obtained by survivors.
Method: Buy compazine without prescription, We examine the dominant existing professional published research in comparison with four survivor-designed studies and attempt to account for the disparities.
Though we surveyed research from the 1940s to the present, we focus here on NIMH-funded research of the past 25 years. Order compazine cheap online, Although some studies from the 1940s and 50s stand as unsurpassed examples of sound research---especially the famous Janis study which has prompted calls for replication to this day---most of the earlier studies are characterized by the same methods, assumptions, and flaws as the later work.
Survey of the professional literature:
There have been only two major NIMH grants to study memory.
MH24600: Memory as Affected by Disease, Injury, compazine overnight, and ECT
Principal Investigator: Larry Squire
This grant was not primarily or exclusively designed to study the effects of ECT; the topic of study is memory loss in general.
• Used a self-designed instrument, the Squire Memory Questionnaire, designed to distinguish the effects of depression on memory and cognition from the effects of ECT, buy compazine without prescription. It was not designed to investigate the permanent effects on ECT on memory and cognition by comparing individuals who had ECT with their own baselines or with normal matched controls. Also, the questionnaire measures multiple aspects of cognition, Compazine overnight delivery, not only memory or memory ability.
• Used low sensitivity instruments to assess memory ability (i.e., word lists remembered over a very short interval; remembering names of TV shows)
• Findings and conclusions often contradictory.
• A study that followed patients for six to nine months found the majority reported impaired memory ability due to ECT. Buy compazine without prescription, (Squire and Chace, 1975)
• A study that followed patients for three years found that the majority (58%) reported impaired memory ability due to ECT. Patients also reported an average eight month period of amnesia. (Squire and Slater, buy compazine in canada, 1983)
"Certain empirical questions about ECT that seem at first glance rather simple to answer by experiment are still widely debated. Does ECT permanently impair memory?" (1986)
"Information about recent events can be lost for a long time, possibly permanently, after ECT." (1986)
"One way of understanding how such complaints could occur long after ECT is to suppose that they are based on the experience of amnesia initially associated with ECT."
"There is no good evidence that new learning ability is still deficient six months after treatment." (1986 Consensus)
"The possibility cannot be ruled out that more sensitive testing methods will some day reveal a greater degree of permanent memory loss."
MH35636: Affective and Cognitive Consequences of ECT
Principal investigator: Harold Sackeim, Compazine malaysia, PhD
• First awarded in 1981; renewed through 2010; funded approximately $300,000 per year for a total of more than six million dollars
• Principal investigator's longterm financial and career conflict of interest make this work scientifically invalid.
• Beginning around 1982, Sackeim began working for ECT device manufacturer Mecta as a consultant, designing their devices including the SR-1 and SR-2. He also received grant money directly from Mecta, buy compazine without prescription. His financial interest in Mecta has never been disclosed to NIMH as required by federal law, compazine vendors.
• Instead of studying memory and cognition directly, the work has focused on a comparison of different ECT techniques.
• Most of these studies follow patients no longer than two months. (This research team claims that all patients are followed up at six months and one year, Buy compazine from india, but the results of these followups aren't published.)
• Amnesia is assessed using a self-designed, unvalidated instrument, the Autobiographical Memory Inventory, designed without input from survivors. Buy compazine without prescription, Survivor researchers estimate that at least 60% of the items are insensitive to ECT's stereotypical effects (for example, they measure very old, overlearned information which is almost never forgotten after ECT).
• Cognition is assessed by gross instruments such as the MMSE. Memory ability is assessed by simple tests such as paired words, compazine buy drug. (This research team claims that more extensive neuropsychological testing---some of which would be relevant to ECT's effects---is done on all patients before and after ECT, but the results of these tests have not been published.)
• Much of the grant has been spent selectively reviewing existing research rather than doing experiments. For example, rather than directly design an experiment to test whether ECT causes brain damage, Compazine uk, the grantees chose to write a review of some of the existing experiments.
After more than 20 years and more than ten million dollars spent on one grant alone, basic research on the permanent effects of ECT on memory, memory ability, and cognition is lacking, buy compazine without prescription. By the principal investigator's own admission, there is no data and there are no answers to the most basic questions about ECT's effects on memory.
"Prospective patients, family members, and the public often want to know the frequency with which patients report substantial memory impairment following ECT, buy cheapest compazine on line. While we believe that such reports are infrequent, there is little objective evidence to support this judgment or even to broadly estimate base rates." editorial
"There is no evidence that ECT results in impairments of executive functions (e.g. the capacity to shift mental sets), abstract reasoning, Compazine in uk, creativity, semantic memory, implicit memory, or skill acquisition and retention." APA
"No study has documented anterograde amnestic effects of ECT more than a few weeks following the ECT course." APA
"A very rare number of patients may experience marked retrograde amnesia as a result of ECT. Buy compazine without prescription, There is no firm estimate on this incidence, but my estimate would be on the order of 1 in 500 patients." (statement---May)
"All of the available information, from scores of studies, indicates that this deficit (anterograde memory loss) disappears within days to a few weeks following the end of ECT."(statement---May)
"I've never seen a case where there has been permanent effect of ECT on anterograde amnesia. And I invite anyone in the country who believes ECT's had a deleterious effect on their cognition to come in for evaluation." (May testimony)
Survey of the survivor literature:
Because of the enormous gaps in ECT research, survivors have undertaken research projects on their own to reflect the variety of experiences, compazine price. The results of these studies widely challenge the results of the professional literature.
The following is a representative, but not exhaustive, listing of survivor-designed and implemented research. Compazine prices, Committee for Truth in Psychiatry ECT Survey, 1990
52 survivors who reported that they had experienced permanent amnesia and reported that they had not been warned about the adverse effects of ECT were asked about the nature of these effects, using a questionnaire adapted from a standard form used to assess brain injury. They were asked about thirteen common symptoms of brain injury, and asked whether they experienced each in the acute period (the first year after ECT) and in the long term, buy compazine without prescription.
All respondents indicated suffering from at least some of these symptoms since ECT, both short-term and long-term. Half of the respondents checked nearly all items in both time periods:
- general loss of memory ability;
- forgetfulness or absentmindedness
- language impairment (not being able to think of a word, buy compazine online australia, or forgetting what one intended to say)
- difficulty in reading comprehension
- not "getting the point" of jokes, stories, movies, etc.
- forgetting new information abnormally rapidly
- impaired sense of direction
- difficulty concentrating
- difficulty with spatial relations
- loss of manual skill
- other loss of familiar skills
The average number of years since ECT was 23. Buy compazine from us, The average age at ECT was 24.
They were then asked about the degree to which they had been able to compensate for these deficits, and whether they found them disabling. Buy compazine without prescription, Only one-fourth of the respondents felt they had been able to compensate. They further reported that it had taken them anywhere from 8 to 43 years to reach the point where they were able to compensate for their deficits..
Two-thirds were unemployed, reporting that they had been employed prior to ECT and unemployed as a result of it, cheap compazine tablet.
90% said they still needed help in coping with enduring cognitive deficits.
"I think that the residual effects from ECT certainly slowed my ability to do the thinking, concentration, and memory necessary to do my school work...and thus added years to my achieving graduation from college."
"There was no acknowledgment of any damage so no help was offered."
"Neuropsychological evaluation showed low IQ, Best price compazine, cognitive difficulties"
"I'm OK with multiple choice tests but can't remember enough to do essays."
"Retired on Disability, though an associate professor with lifetime tenure. Was doing PhD in Physics."
"Before ECT I knew my way around town as well as I knew my way around my own house, buy compazine without prescription. Now my sense of direction is horrible. I'm always getting lost."
"43 years to get back to almost as good as before."
"I am a great deal brighter than average---so professionals do not believe I suffer any losses from ECT. I was not tested before ECT, only after!"
VOICES, compazine australia, 1996
Questionnaires were distributed via online newsgroups and email lists of psychiatric consumer/survivors. 41 respondents participated in the study. Buy compazine without prescription, 83 percent reported feeling their long-term memory had been affected. This ranged from loss of certain events in their lives, to the inability to remember family members, Order compazine no rx, and in some cases, up to 20 years of memories were erased. Only 17% felt that their long-term memory had not been adversely affected.
"The worst thing that ever happened to me..."
"ECT destroyed my family..."
"Doctor claimed memory problems would vanish in two weeks..."
Of females, 82.6% said long-term memory was affected, and among males, canadian pharmacy compazine, 83.3% reported problems.
"I can't remember my 20-year Marine Corps career...or daughter's birth or childhood..."
Short-term memory appears to have been affected slightly less, or the effects were temporary. 63.4% reported problems with short-term memory loss, buy compazine without prescription. 12% said they had no problems at all with short-term memory loss. No prescription compazine, And 22% said that short-term memory loss was either temporary or minor.
"I couldn't remember people's names, but it gradually came back...with some prompting..."
Half of all respondents reported that they were given no information about ECT and its effects, other than to be told it was effective. The other half were given information in the way of video tapes, pamphlets, buying generic compazine, books, and detailed discussions with their physician or nurse. Buy compazine without prescription, Of those, however, several reported that they wish they had been given more accurate information concerning memory loss and other adverse effects.
"I did have detailed discussions with my doctors before the treatment, but I just couldn't realize how bad the memory loss was going to be. Buy compazine no rx, If I had, I'm not sure I would have taken the treatments..."
ECT Anonymous, 1999
ECT Anonymous, located in the United Kingdom, surveyed 200 ECT survivors. 82 percent of respondents reported a loss of past memories, sale compazine, ranging from slightly (8 percent), moderately (33 percent) and severely (41 percent). 84 percent said they had impaired present memory ability, and 85 percent reported difficulties with concentration after having ECT.
In early 2001, the UK mental health charity MIND sent out over 6,000 copies of its detailed questionnaire regarding ECT use, buy compazine without prescription. Find compazine without prescription, 418 replies were received.
- Almost three quarters (73%) of the total sample and almost two thirds (60.5%) of those given ECT most recently were not, as far as they remember, given any information about possible side effects.
- Of those consenting to treatment in the last two years, 48% received, as far as they remember, order compazine overnight delivery, no information about how the treatment would work and 44.5% no information about possible side effects.
- 84% of respondents said that they had experienced unwanted side effects as a result of having ECT.
- 40.5% reported permanent loss of past memories and 36% permanent difficulty in concentrating.
- Respondents from black and minority ethnic communities were more likely to be detained under the Mental Health Act and to have received ECT without consent. They reported a more negative view of ECT than the overall sample with 50% finding it unhelpful, damaging or severely damaging in the short-term and 72% in the long-term.
“If I had known I had the right to refuse I would have done so. My understanding was that I had no choice in the matter and that they could do it by force.”
“Was told by consultant ‘best thing since sliced bread’, Compazine pills, ‘be well in no time’. Buy compazine without prescription, When went wrong, ‘this was the first time this had happened’.”
“Possible side effects were downplayed and only lightly touched upon.”
“I was given no information at all”
Published case studies
The individual case study is an important and necessary method of collecting evidence, since it allows the nature and extent of amnesia, memory disability, and memory loss to be described in detail impossible to obtain in-group studies. Consistency in individual case studies illustrates that ECT's permanent effects have not changed over the years.
As Empty As Eve, by Berton Roueche; first published in the New Yorker, September 9, 1974; reprinted in The Medical Detectives, drug compazine, 1981
"There weren't just gaps in my memory. There were oceans and oceans of blankness. And yet there seemed to be kind of a pattern. My childhood recollections were as strong as ever, buy compazine without prescription. The fog of amnesia increased as I came forward in time. Order compazine from canada, The events of the past several years were the blurriest and the blankest. Another area that didn't seem to be affected was ingrained habits---repetitive acts and procedures. I mean, I hadn't lost my command of the English language. Buy compazine without prescription, I still knew the multiplication tables...But worst of all my problems was that I couldn't seem to retain. I couldn't hang on to my relearning. Or only a part of it, generic compazine. The rest kept sliding away again."
Electroconvulsive Therapy and Memory Loss: A Personal Journey, by Anne Donahue; The Journal of ECT, June 2000.
"My long-term memory deficits far exceed anything my doctors anticipated, Compazine australia, I was advised about, or that are validated by research. To the contrary, either I am one in a thousand, a complete anomaly, to be able to document memory loss still remaining after 3 years and extending as far back as occurrences eight to nine years ago, or the profession in general, after all these years of treatment with ECT, has still failed to identify and come to terms with the true potential risks."
Further evidence for permanent memory and cognitive impairment is found in the neuropsychological evaluations (standardized batteries of tests for brain damage, taking place over two or more days) obtained by individual survivors at their own expense; many of these are collected in the archives of the Food and Drug Administration, Docket #82P-0316, buy compazine without prescription.
SUMMARY of survivor findings:
- Amnesia (retrograde memory loss) occurs in a majority of ECT survivors. Commonly, the loss encompasses years prior to ECT.
- Memory disability (anterograde memory loss) is common and does not resolve after ECT.
- When tested long after ECT, survivors experience cognitive deficits.
- Each survivor has her pre-ECT self as a perfectly matched control subject, order no rx compazine, eliminating confusion as to etiology of deficits.
- More research is needed using extensive batteries of neuropsychological tests such as those used to detect brain damage. From the preliminary data gathered by survivors, a characteristic pattern of ECT damage has emerged. While survivors may do well on simple tests such as paired words or the Mini Mental Status Exam, Tablet compazine, more comprehensive standard neuropsychological batteries reveal deficits in higher mental functions such as flexibility, shifting cognitive set, abstract and analytical thinking, and executive function. Loss of measured general intelligence (IQ) tends to be highly significant---30-40 points.
- Buy compazine without prescription, Survivors have absolutely no difficulty distinguishing normal memory failures from those caused by ECT. ECT amnesia and memory disability has little in common with normal memory fallibility, age-related disability, compazine sale, or problems associated with mental illness.
Published medical literature research:
A small and exclusive playing field: a handful of research teams dominate grant funding.
The only available NIMH grant to investigate memory is tarnished by financial and other conflicts of interest; since this grant is renewed indefinitely, there is little opportunity for researchers outside the ECT industry to obtain funding.
Rarely follows patients as long as six months; almost never longer
Most studies look only at the short-term effects (from during ECT to a few days or weeks after)
Sample sizes very small in general (>50)
Self-designed memory instruments designed without input from survivors, Compazine in bangkok, largely insensitive to stereotypical ECT amnesia, memory disability, and cognitive disability
Rarely directly study the effects of ECT on memory, memory ability, and cognition. Instead, low price compazine, studies compare persons who had different types of ECT with each other, rather than with their own baselines or normal controls, resulting in an underestimate of memory/cognitive damage.
Often use no or inappropriate controls
Subjects do not reflect true diversity of ECT patient population: all treated at the same hospital, Buy compazine no rx, with the same doctor, at the same time, usually with same machine and technique
Because patients interviewed by their own treating doctor and/or institution, and sometimes while still institutionalized, bias is toward underreporting of adverse effects
Ambiguous inquiries about "memory", without distinguishing between memory, memory ability, and cognitive abilities
Researchers unpaid; work done at researcher's own personal financial expense
Self-designed instruments designed by and for survivors to be sensitive to the deficits we commonly experience
Large sample sizes (<50)
Heterogeneous samples more representative of the ECT population as a whole:
Memory, memory ability, and cognition are studied directly, not as a sidebar to research on optimizing technique
Emphasis on describing discrete cognitive deficits rather than lumping them together with amnesia as "memory"
Patients are their own controls
Mostly very long-term follow-ups: patients who had ECT more than one year---and sometimes ten years or more---previously, thus eliminating replacing speculation with evidence as to whether adverse effects ultimately resolve
Because responding ex-patients are self-selecting, those with more severe adverse affects may be overrepresented
Because researchers are strangers and non-professionals, no incentive to underrreport adverse effects
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