The Practice of Electroconvulsive Therapy:
Recommendations for Treatment, Training and Privileging
Second Edition (Completely Revised)


A Task Force Report of the American Psychiatric Association

Task Force on Electroconvulsive Therapy
Richard D. Weiner, M.D., Ph.D., Chair
C. Edward Coffey, M.D.
Laura J. Fochtmann, M.D.
Robert M. Greenberg, M.D.
Keith E. Isenberg, M.D.
Charles H. Kellner, M.D.
Harold Sackeim, Ph.D.
Louis Moench, M.D., Assembly Liaison

APA Staff: Harold Alan Pincus, M.D.
Laurie E. McQueen, M.S.S.W.

NOTE: The contributors have worked to ensure that all information in this book concerning drug doses, schedules, and routes of administration is accurate at the time of publication and consistent with the standards set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the general medical community. As medical research and practice advance, however, therapeutic standards may change. For this reason and because human and mechanical errors sometimes occur, we recommend that readers follow the advice of a physician directly involved in their care or the care of a member of their family.

The findings, opinions, and conclusions of the report do not necessarily represent the views of the officers, trustees, or all members of the American Psychiatric Association. Each report, however, does represent the thoughtful judgment and findings of the task force of experts who composed it. These reports are considered a substantive contribution to the ongoing analysis and evaluation of problems, programs, issues, and practices in a given area of concern.

Table of Contents